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Page history last edited by Jayson Yeagley 13 years, 7 months ago


Claim Data Warrant (CDW) is a technique used to answer short and long responses.  The technique is complete and logical and requires you to answer the question in a complete sentence (Claim).  Next, prove what you said in the claim by looking for textual support that you will paraphrase a chunk and quote another chunk (Data).  Finally, tie everything together and show how your data proves that your claim is correct.  This works for text based.  There is a CDW alternative for non-text based examples. 





Claim- Answer the question in a complete sentence (1)



Data- Use information from the text or source to support your claim (answer).


2.Quote. (A phrase such as--According to the text, "XXX."

Warrant- Tie your data to your claim; make an obvious connection; Think closing argument in a court case. warrants: why and how  your support supports your claims--in other words, you will likely need to explain why your examples, illustrations, and facts support the claim ."

An example might be if I told you: "you should buy this particular car because it gets great gas mileage". My claim is that you should buythis car rather than any other one. My data is that it gets great gas mileage. My unstated assumption could be that saving money on gas isthe most important feature to consider when buying a car. Obviously this is really simplified to show the relationships, but the warrant in this is what makes me say the data justify the claim. Sometimes warrants are obvious, other times they are not; sometimes they are logical, sometimes not; in the long run, the connections are important parts of the argument.   




A warrant links data and other grounds to a claim, legitimizing the claim by showing the grounds to be relevant. The warrant may be explicit or unspoken and implicit. It answers the question 'Why does that data mean your claim is true?'

For example:

A hearing aid helps most people to hear better.

The warrant may be simple and it may also be a longer argument, with additional sub-elements including those described below.

Warrants may be based on logos, ethos or pathos, or values that are assumed to be shared with the listener.

In many arguments, warrants are often implicit and hence unstated. This gives space for the other person to question and expose the warrant, perhaps to show it is weak or unfounded.



The warrant is the inferential leap that connects the claim with the grounds.

The warrant is typically implicit (unstated) and requires the listener to recognize the underlying reasoning that makes sense of the claim in light of the grounds.

The warrant performs a "linking" function by establishing a mental connection between the grounds and the claim

example: "Muffin is running a temperature. I'll bet she has an infection." warrant: sign reasoning; a fever is a reliable sign of an infection

example: "That dog is probably friendly. It is a Golden Retriever." warrant: generalization; most or all Golden Retrievers are friendly

warrants can be based on:

ethos: source credibility, authority

logos: reason-giving, induction, deduction

pathos: emotional or motivational appeals

shared values: free speech, right to know, fairness, etc.








Example 1:


Q: What does a Marxist reading of your children’s novel reveal?


A: Marxist reading of my children’s novel reveals that the bear, Pizza, is being taken advantage of for financial gain. The bourgeois pizza shop owner, Charlie, obviously keeps the bear at subpar standards as he keeps him controlled and on a leash and collar. Pizza is actually property of a business owner who solely uses him to bring to life the slogan, “when you are hungry as a bear, come to Charlie’s Pizza.” The lack of freedom and the exploitation of Pizza for profit-gaining change a classic story into a typical example of greed undermining equality.


-----------------Claim Data Warrant (Alternative)--------------------------------------

You can use the technique when not dealing with text-based questions by altering the Data aspect to a connection (personal or worldly).  Here is an example to illustrate how to apply the CDW alternative (Alternative Data is underlined):



Should students be required to serve two years in the military after high school?





Students should be required to serve at least two years in the military after high school. Students can serve their country and give back after having been educated for 12 years. The military experience would strengthen a students self discipline, which would have positive lifelong benefits. Such requirements have been the norm in many countries such as Germany with great success.A short two-year stint in the military would help better prepare students for life’s challenges as well as service to country.



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